Mental Health

MeditationA growing evidence base explores the mental health dimensions of global environmental change.  What are the mental/cognitive benefits of exposure to “intact” nature?  What are the mental health costs of environmental degradation?  Are there significant mental health benefits of managing natural systems in particular ways?  Are the mental health burdens associated with reduced exposure to nature fairly distributed across different populations? Better understanding of these issues could meaningfully inform resource management decisions and urban design to mitigate the mental health impacts of environmental change.

Learning Objectives

  • L1: Explore the indirect and direct anthropogenic drivers of mental health challenges.
  • L2: Summarize the role and influence of mental health research over time to better inform present context.
  • L3: Consider how human activities and influence on ecosystem transformations have the potential to improve mental health.

 

Myers SS. Planetary health: protecting human health on a rapidly changing planet . The Lancet [Internet]. 2017. Publisher's VersionAbstract

The impact of human activities on our planet's natural systems has been intensifying rapidly in the past several decades, leading to disruption and transformation of most natural systems. These disruptions in the atmosphere, oceans, and across the terrestrial land surface are not only driving species to extinction, they pose serious threats to human health and wellbeing. Characterising and addressing these threats requires a paradigm shift. In a lecture delivered to the Academy of Medical Sciences on Nov 13, 2017, I describe the scale of human impacts on natural systems and the extensive associated health effects across nearly every dimension of human health. I highlight several overarching themes that emerge from planetary health and suggest advances in the way we train, reward, promote, and fund the generation of health scientists who will be tasked with breaking out of their disciplinary silos to address this urgent constellation of health threats. I propose that protecting the health of future generations requires taking better care of Earth's natural systems.

Kurth AE. Planetary Health and the Role of Nursing: A Call to Action . Journal of Nursing Scholarship. 2017.Abstract
Purpose
To discuss the drivers of planetary health, responses, and the role of nursing in making health systems more resilient in an era of increasing stresses. As health providers, scientists, educators, and leaders, nurses have an obligation to prepare for climate change and other impacts of ecosystem strain on human health.
 
Design and Methods
Review of literature relevant to a planetary health framework.
 
Findings
Population displacement, new disease patterns and health needs, stresses on air quality, food production and water systems, and equity concerns, as well as the generation of sustainable energy, are all intimately related to health.
 
Conclusions
Nurses are key to achieving the sustainable development goals that, like the planetary health framework, focus on environmental sustainability and human well-being. Nurses contribute to resilient health systems, as trusted leaders and providers of health care, and as advocates and change makers impacting the world.
 
Clinical Relevance
It is critical that nurses and other health professionals consider the multiple effects of ecosystem strain on human health, and anticipate population health and health system planning and response.
Lane K, Charles-Guzman K, Wheeler K, Abid Z, Graber N, Matte T. Health Effects of Coastal Storms and Flooding in Urban Areas: A Review and Vulnerability Assessment . Journal of Environmental and Public Health [Internet]. 2013. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Coastal storms can take a devastating toll on the public's health. Urban areas like New York City (NYC) may be particularly at risk, given their dense population, reliance on transportation, energy infrastructure that is vulnerable to flood damage, and high-rise residential housing, which may be hard-hit by power and utility outages. Climate change will exacerbate these risks in the coming decades. Sea levels are rising due to global warming, which will intensify storm surge. These projections make preparing for the health impacts of storms even more important. We conducted a broad review of the health impacts of US coastal storms to inform climate adaptation planning efforts, with a focus on outcomes relevant to NYC and urban coastal areas, and incorporated some lessons learned from recent experience with Superstorm Sandy. Based on the literature, indicators of health vulnerability were selected and mapped within NYC neighborhoods. Preparing for the broad range of anticipated effects of coastal storms and floods may help reduce the public health burden from these events.

 
Hikichi H, Sawada Y, Tsuboya T, Aida J, Kondo K, Koyama S, Kawachi I. Residential relocation and change in social capital: A natural experiment from the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. Science Advances [Internet]. 2017;3 (7). Publisher's VersionAbstract

Social connections in the community (“social capital”) represent an important source of resilience in the aftermath of major disasters. However, little is known about how residential relocation due to housing destruction affects survivors’ social capital. We examined changes in social capital among survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. People who lost their homes were resettled to new locations by two primary means: (i) group relocation to public temporary trailer housing or (ii) individual relocation, in which victims moved into government-provided housing by lottery or arranged for their own accommodation (market rental housing or private purchase/new construction). The baseline for our natural experiment was established 7 months before the 11 March 2011 disaster, when we conducted a survey of older community-dwelling adults who lived 80-km west of the earthquake epicenter. Approximately 2.5 years after the disaster, the follow-up survey gathered information about personal experiences of disaster as well as health status and social capital. Among 3421 people in our study, 79 people moved via group relocation to public temporary trailer housing, whereas 96 people moved on their own. The individual fixed-effects model showed that group relocation was associated with improved informal socializing and social participation (β coefficient = 0.053, 95% confidence interval: 0.011 to 0.095). In contrast, individual relocation was associated with declining informal socializing and social participation (β coefficient = −0.039, 95% confidence interval: −0.074 to −0.003). Group relocation, as compared to individual relocation, appeared to preserve social participation and informal socializing in the community.

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