Amend T, Brown J, Kothari A, Phillips A, Stolton S ed. Values of Protected Landscapes and Seascapes. 2nd ed. Protected Landscapes Specialist Group of IUCN's World Commission on Protected Areas; 2008. Publisher's Version
Winpenny JT. Values for the Environment: A Guide to Economic Appraisal. Overseas Development Institute; 1991. Publisher's VersionAbstract

The author describes various valuation methods: i) effect on production approach (to determine and evaluate physical effects), ii) preventive expenditure (what people will pay to prevent something happening), iii) replacement cost (payment made to restore something to original state or something equivalent); iv) human capital (effect of environmental changes on the value of humans as productive assets); and v) contingent valuation (e.g. willingness to pay and willingness to accept). This summary is not an official abstract. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract

Figge F. Value-based Environmental Management: From Environmental Shareholder Value to Environmental Option Value. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management [Internet]. 2005;12 :19-30. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Concepts linking environmental management and enterprise value are usually based on net present value approaches. This approach risks making companies (eco) efficient but vulnerable to environmental and social shocks. This article discusses environmental option value as a compliment to concepts such as environmental shareholder value. It creates flexibility allowing investors to be shielded from detrimental effects of possible future environmental and social shocks. In combination the two approaches can help environmental management to contribute to creating long-term enterprise value. This summary is not an official abstract. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract

Daily GC, Soderqvist T, Aniyar S, Arrow K, Dasgupta P, Ehrlich PR, Folke C, Jansson AM, Jansson B-O, Kautsky N, et al. The Value of Nature and the Nature of Value. Science [Internet]. 2000;289 :395. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Ecosystems are capital assets: When properly managed, they yield a flow of vital goods and services. Relative to other forms of capital, however, ecosystems are poorly understood, scarcely monitored, and--in many important cases--undergoing rapid degradation. The process of economic valuation could greatly improve stewardship. This potential is now being realized with innovative financial instruments and institutional arrangements.

Pimentel D, McNair M, Buck L, Pimentel M, Kamil J. The Value of Forests to World Food Security. Human Ecology [Internet]. 1997;25 (1) :91-120. Publisher's VersionAbstract

We assembled information on the contribution and value of forests to world food security. An assessment was made of the role of forests and non-timber products in the food system of developing countries. We estimated that upwards of 300 million people annually earn part or all of their livelihood and food from forests. A total of about $90 billion in non-timber products are harvested each year. Forests also help to protect land, water, and biological resources, and they play an important role in maintaining the productivity of agricultural and environmental systems.


Echeverria J, Hanrahan M, Solorzano R. Valuation of Non-priced Amenities provided by the Biological Resources within the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve. Costa Rica Ecological Economics [Internet]. 1995;13 :43-52. Publisher's VersionAbstract

The study uses CV to show that Costa Ricans are willing to pay more than nonCosta Ricans despite having a lower income, possibly explained by greater concern for their own well being This summary is not an official abstract. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract

Irwin CK, Yoon KJ, Wang C, Hoff SJ, Zimmerman JJ, Denagamage T, O'Connor AM. Using the systematic review methodology to evaluate factors that influence the persistence of influenza virus in environmental matrices. Appl Environ Microbiol [Internet]. 2011;77 (3) :1049-60. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Understanding factors that influence persistence of influenza virus in an environment without host animals is critical to appropriate decision-making for issues such as quarantine downtimes, setback distances, and eradication programs in livestock production systems. This systematic review identifies literature describing persistence of influenza virus in environmental samples, i.e., air, water, soil, feces, and fomites. An electronic search of PubMed, CAB, AGRICOLA, Biosis, and Compendex was performed, and citation relevance was determined according to the aim of the review. Quality assessment of relevant studies was performed using criteria from experts in virology, disease ecology, and environmental science. A total of 9,760 abstracts were evaluated, and 40 appeared to report the persistence of influenza virus in environmental samples. Evaluation of full texts revealed that 19 of the 40 studies were suitable for review, as they described virus concentration measured at multiple sampling times, with viruses detectable at least twice. Seven studies reported persistence in air (six published before 1970), seven in water (five published after 1990), two in feces, and three on surfaces. All three fomite and five air studies addressed human influenza virus, and all water and feces studies pertained to avian influenza virus. Outcome measurements were transformed to half-lives, and resultant multivariate mixed linear regression models identified influenza virus surviving longer in water than in air. Temperature was a significant predictor of persistence over all matrices. Salinity and pH were significant predictors of persistence in water conditions. An assessment of the methodological quality review of the included studies revealed significant gaps in reporting critical aspects of study design.

Brown ME, Grace K, Shively G, Johnson KB, Carroll M. Using Satellite Remote Sensing and Household Survey Data to Assess Human Health and Nutrition Response to Environmental Change. Popul Environ [Internet]. 2014. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Climate change and degradation of ecosystem services functioning may threaten the ability of current agricultural systems to keep up with demand for adequate and inexpensive food and for clean water, waste disposal and other broader ecosystem services. Human health is likely to be affected by changes occurring across multiple geographic and time scales. Impacts range from increasing transmissibility and the range of vectorborne diseases, such as malaria and yellow fever, to undermining nutrition through deleterious impacts on food production and concomitant increases in food prices. This paper uses case studies to describe methods that make use of satellite remote sensing and Demographic and Health Survey data to better understand individual-level human health and nutrition outcomes. By bringing these diverse datasets together, the connection between environmental change and human health outcomes can be described through new research and analysis. 

Glass GE, Cheek JE, Patz JA, Shields TM, Doyle TJ, Thoroughman DA, Hunt DK, Enscore RE, Gage KL, Irland C, et al. Using remotely sensed data to identify areas at risk for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Emerg Infect Dis [Internet]. 2000;6 :238-47. Publisher's VersionAbstract

The 1993 U.S. hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) outbreak was attributed to environmental conditions and increased rodent populations caused by unusual weather in 1991- 92. In a case-control study to test this hypothesis, we estimated precipitation at 28 HPS and 170 control sites during the springs of 1992 and 1993 and compared it with precipitation during the previous 6 years by using rainfall patterns at 196 weather stations. We also used elevation data and Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite imagery collected the year before the outbreak to estimate HPS risk by logistic regression analysis. Rainfall at case sites was not higher during 1992-93 than in previous years. However, elevation, as well as satellite data, showed association between environmental conditions and HPS risk the following year. Repeated analysis using satellite imagery from 1995 showed substantial decrease in medium- to high-risk areas. Only one case of HPS was identified in 1996.

Cook A, Jardine A, Weinstein P. Using Human Disease Outbreaks as a Guide to Multilevel Ecosystem Interventions. Environmental Health Perspectives [Internet]. 2004;112. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Human health often depends on environmental variables and is generally subject to widespread and comprehensive surveillance. Compared with other measures, human disease incidence may be one of the most useful and practical bioindicators to gauge ecologic well-being. Whereas subtle ecosystem disruptions may be identified only after an anomalous increase in human disease detected by routine surveillance, outbreak data on vector-mediated diseases and direct zoonoses can act as a pivotal warning system for ecosystem disruption. Appropriate ecologically-based remediation strategies can be introduced at an earlier stage than if based solely on environmental monitoring thereby reducing the level of "ecosystem distress" as well as resultant disease burden in humans. This summary is not an official abstract. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract

Naylor R, Falcon W, Wada N, Rochberg D. Using El Nino southern oscillation climate data to improve food policy planning in Indonesia. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies [Internet]. 2002;38 :75-91. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Despite the impact of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events on climate in the Indo-Pacific region, models linking ENSO-based climate variability to Indonesian cereal production are not well developed. This study measures connections among sea-surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs), rainfall, and Indonesian rice and corn production from 1971 to 1998. Year-to-year August SSTA fluctuations explain about half the interannual variance in paddy production during the main (wet) season. These effects are cumulative for rice: during strong El Niño years, wet season production shortfalls are not made up subsequently. For corn, the cumulative area sown is actually higher in El Niño years than La Niña years. Indonesia’s paddy production varies on average by 1.4 million tons for every 1˚C change in August SSTAs. The paper illustrates how an SSTA model might assist policy makers with budgetary processes, and private sector cereal traders with framing production expectations.

Halewood M, Mathur PN, Fadda C, Otieno G. Using Crop Diversity to Adapt to Climate Change: Highlighting the Importance of the Plant Treaty's Policy Support. Rome, Italy: Bioversity International; 2013. Publisher's Version
Bavia ME, Malone JB, Hale L, Dantas A, Marroni L, Reis R. Use of thermal and vegetation index data from earth observing satellites to evaluate the risk of schistosomiasis in Bahia, Brazil. Acta Tropica [Internet]. 2001;79 :79-85. Publisher's VersionAbstract

A geographic information system (GIS) was constructed using maps of regional agroclimatic features, vegetation indices and earth surface temperature data from environmental satellites, together with Schistosoma mansoni prevalence records from 270 municipalities including snail host distributions in Bahia, Brazil to study the spatial and temporal dynamics of infection and to identify environmental factors that influence the distribution of schistosomiasis. In an initial analysis, population density and duration (months) of the annual dry period were shown to be important determinants of disease. In cooperation with the National Institute of Spatial Research in Brazil (INPE), day and night imagery data covering the state of Bahia were selected at approximately bimonthly intervals in 1994 (six day-night pairs) from the data archives of the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) sensor of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-11 satellite. A composite mosaic of these images was created to produce maps of: (1) average values between 0 and +1 of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI); and (2) average diurnal temperature differences (dT) on a scale of values between 0 and 15 degrees C. For each municipality, NDVI and dT were calculated for a 3x3 pixel (9 km(2) area) grid and analyzed for relationships to prevalence of schistosomiasis. Results showed a statistically significant relationship of prevalence to dT (rho=-0.218) and NDVI (rho=0.384) at the 95% level of confidence by the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results support use of NDVI, dT, dry period climatic stress factors and human population density for development of a GIS environmental risk assessment model for schistosomiasis in Brazil.

Gazzinelli A, Kloss H. The use of spatial tools in the study of Schistosoma mansoni and its intermediate host snails in Brazil: a brief review. Geospatial Health [Internet]. 2007;2 :51-8. Publisher's VersionAbstract

The rapidly increasing number of spatial studies and the complexity of schistosomiasis transmission dynamics in Brazil indicate that surveillance and control programmes can benefit from the spatial approach, not only in areas susceptible to the introduction and establishment of new transmission foci but also in areas experiencing declines in schistosomiasis transmission. Several additional areas amenable to, or requiring, spatial research are identified. This paper reviews spatial studies of schistosomiasis in Brazil with a focus on the application of spatial tools in epidemiological, disease ecological, control and several additional areas in schistosomiasis research.


Wuehler SE, Peerson JM, Brown KH. Use of national food balance data to estimate the adequacy of zinc in national food supplies: methodology and regional estimates. Public Health Nutrition [Internet]. 2007;8 :812-819. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Adequate zinc nutriture is critically important for human health, but the development of programmes to control zinc deficiency is limited by the lack of reliable information on population zinc status. The present analyses were conducted to: (1) estimate the absorbable zinc content of national food supplies; (2) compare this information with theoretical population requirements for zinc; and (3) use these results to predict national risks of inadequate zinc intake. Setting and design: National food balance data were obtained for 176 countries from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The amount of absorbable zinc in these foods was estimated from food composition data, and zinc absorption was predicted using a model developed by the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG). Demographic data were obtained from United Nations estimates, and age- and sex-specific physiological requirements for absorbable zinc were estimated using IZiNCG recommendations. Results and conclusions: The mean per capita absorbable zinc content of national food supplies ranged from 2.98– 3.01 mg day21 in Western Europe and USA & Canada to 2.09 mg day21 in Southeast Asia. The estimated percentage of individuals at risk of inadequate zinc intake ranged from 9.3–9.5% in the regions of North Africa & Eastern Mediterranean and USA & Canada to 33.1% in Southeast Asia. Overall, approximately 20.5% of the world’s population is estimated to be at risk of inadequate zinc intake. Data on the absorbable zinc content of national food supplies can be used to determine whether further assessments of population zinc status and development of intervention programmes are warranted.

Henderson SB, Burkholder B, Jackson PL, Brauer M, Ichoku C. Use of MODIS products to simplify and evaluate a forest fire plume dispersion model for PM10 exposure assessment. Atmospheric Environment [Internet]. 2008;42 :8524-8532. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Plume dispersion models may improve assessment of the health effects associated with forest fire smoke, but they require considerable expertise in atmospheric and fire sciences to initialize and evaluate. Products from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensors can simplify the process by providing (1) estimates of fire location, size and emission rates, and (2) data useful for assessing model output. By grouping individual MODIS fire pixels into discrete events we simulated the growth and decay of large fires and estimated their total burned area. Radiative power measurements for each fire pixel were multiplied against a fuel-specific coefficient to estimate particle emission rates. Using the CALMET/CALPUFF package we modeled the dispersion of these particles throughout a 325,000 km2 area with complex terrain. Moderate agreement (mean r = 0.61) between estimated and measured PM10concentrations was observed at five of six sites. Because surface measurements are only made at a limited number of locations, we used aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and color imagery product from MODIS for further evaluation. Strong trend association was observed between surface concentrations, model estimates and the AOT measurements. When CALPUFF plume contours were compared to smoke outlines traced from MODIS images we found an average overlap of 50% with better performance under high wind conditions. We conclude that this relatively simple and globally applicable approach can provide a strong foundation for enhanced smoke exposure modeling and public health risk assessment.


Eisen L, Lozano-Fuentes S. Use of Mapping and Spatial and Space-Time Modeling Approaches in Operational Control of Aedes aegypti and Dengue. PLoS Negl Trop Dis [Internet]. 2009;3 :e411. Publisher's VersionAbstract

The aims of this review paper are to 1) provide an overview of how mapping and spatial and space-time modeling approaches have been used to date to visualize and analyze mosquito vector and epidemiologic data for dengue; and 2) discuss the potential for these approaches to be included as routine activities in operational vector and dengue control programs. Geographical information system (GIS) software are becoming more user-friendly and now are complemented by free mapping software that provide access to satellite imagery and basic feature-making tools and have the capacity to generate static maps as well as dynamic time-series maps. Our challenge is now to move beyond the research arena by transferring mapping and GIS technologies and spatial statistical analysis techniques in user-friendly packages to operational vector and dengue control programs. This will enable control programs to, for example, generate risk maps for exposure to dengue virus, develop Priority Area Classifications for vector control, and explore socioeconomic associations with dengue risk.

Huybers, P. MKKARATM& (2014). US daily temperatures: the meaning of extremes in the context of non-normality. Journal of Climate [Internet]. 2014;27 :7368-7384. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Variations in extreme daily temperatures are explored in relation to changes in seasonal mean temperature using 1218 high-quality U.S. temperature stations spanning 1900–2012. Extreme temperatures are amplified (or damped) by as much as ±50% relative to changes in average temperature, depending on region, season, and whether daily minimum or maximum temperature is analyzed. The majority of this regional structure in amplification is shown to follow from regional variations in temperature distributions. More specifically, there exists a close relationship between departures from normality and the degree to which extreme changes are amplified relative to the mean. To distinguish between intraseasonal and interannual contributions to nonnormality and amplification, an additional procedure, referred to as zbootstrapping, is introduced that controls for changes in the mean and variance between years. Application of zbootstrapping indicates that amplification of winter extreme variations is generally consistent with nonnormal intraseasonal variability. Summer variability, in contrast, shows interannual variations in the spread of the temperature distribution related to changes in the mean, especially in the Midwest. Changes in midwestern temperature variability are qualitatively consistent with those expected from decreases in evapotranspiration and are strongly correlated with a measure of drought intensity. The identified patterns of interannual variations in means and extremes may serve as an analog for modes of variability that can be expected at longer time scales.

Hay SI, Guerra CA, Tatem AJ, Atkinson PM, Snow RW. Urbanization, malaria transmission and disease burden in Africa. Nat Rev Microbiol [Internet]. 2005;3 :81-90. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Many attempts have been made to quantify Africa's malaria burden but none has addressed how urbanization will affect disease transmission and outcome, and therefore mortality and morbidity estimates. In 2003, 39% of Africa's 850 million people lived in urban settings; by 2030, 54% of Africans are expected to do so. We present the results of a series of entomological, parasitological and behavioural meta-analyses of studies that have investigated the effect of urbanization on malaria in Africa. We describe the effect of urbanization on both the impact of malaria transmission and the concomitant improvements in access to preventative and curative measures. Using these data, we have recalculated estimates of populations at risk of malaria and the resulting mortality. We find there were 1,068,505 malaria deaths in Africa in 2000 - a modest 6.7% reduction over previous iterations. The public-health implications of these findings and revised estimates are discussed.

Bradley CA, Altizer S. Urbanization and the ecology of wildlife diseases. Trends in Ecology & Evolution [Internet]. 2007;22 :95-102. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Urbanization is intensifying worldwide, with two-thirds of the human population expected to reside in cities within 30 years. The role of cities in human infectious disease is well established, but less is known about how urban landscapes influence wildlife–pathogen interactions. Here, we draw on recent advances in wildlife epidemiology to consider how environmental changes linked with urbanization can alter the biology of hosts, pathogens and vectors. Although urbanization reduces the abundance of many wildlife parasites, transmission can, in some cases, increase among urban-adapted hosts, with effects on rarer wildlife or those living beyond city limits. Continued rapid urbanization, together with risks posed by multi-host pathogens for humans and vulnerable wildlife populations, emphasize the need for future research on wildlife diseases in urban landscapes.