Pollution

Industrial PollutionOur management of Earth's natural systems is impacting air and water quality around the world.  Warmer temperatures associated with climate change increase the formation of tropospheric ozone, a main constituent of smog and contributor to cardiorespiratory disease.  Warmer temperatures and higher atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are associated with longer pollen seasons and increased pollen production, intensifying allergic respiratory diseases, such as asthma.  Biomass burning for agriculture in places like equatorial Asia is driving sharp increases in particulate air pollution and associated morbidity and mortality.  In some regions, air pollution has become so pervasive that it obscures the sun, altering regional weather patterns, reducing agricultural yields, and accelerating glacial melting. Man-made pollutants in water bodies pose a threat to drinking supplies. Water-borne pollutants in oceans and terrestrial water systems are also consumed by small organisms and thus enter the food chain.

Learning Objectives

  • L1: Assess the sociocultural, economic and political frameworks that perpetuate polluting activities around the world.
  • L2: Define and describe different types and sources of pollution.
  • L3: Understand the interconnectedness of the 'local' and 'global' in the context of the health impacts of pollution.
  • L4: Explain the natural systems that facilitate the flow of pollutants, highlighting inequalities in impact.

 

Efferth T, Paul NW. Threats to human health by great ocean garbage patches . The Lancet Planetary Health [Internet]. 2017;1 (8). Publisher's VersionAbstract
The medical relevance of environmental topics can be blurred by politicised debates and the global scale of the environmental impact of human life. However, a seemingly remote serious health threat is currently floating in our oceans and needs to trigger the attention of the medical community, as its clinical manifestation is only a matter of time.
 
 
Myers SS. Planetary health: protecting human health on a rapidly changing planet . The Lancet [Internet]. 2017. Publisher's VersionAbstract

The impact of human activities on our planet's natural systems has been intensifying rapidly in the past several decades, leading to disruption and transformation of most natural systems. These disruptions in the atmosphere, oceans, and across the terrestrial land surface are not only driving species to extinction, they pose serious threats to human health and wellbeing. Characterising and addressing these threats requires a paradigm shift. In a lecture delivered to the Academy of Medical Sciences on Nov 13, 2017, I describe the scale of human impacts on natural systems and the extensive associated health effects across nearly every dimension of human health. I highlight several overarching themes that emerge from planetary health and suggest advances in the way we train, reward, promote, and fund the generation of health scientists who will be tasked with breaking out of their disciplinary silos to address this urgent constellation of health threats. I propose that protecting the health of future generations requires taking better care of Earth's natural systems.

Watts N, Amann M, Ayeb-Karlsson S, Belesova K, Bouley T. The Lancet Countdown on health and climate change: from 25 years of inaction to a global transformation for public health . The Lancet [Internet]. 2017. Publisher's VersionAbstract
The Lancet Countdown tracks progress on health and climate change and provides an independent assessment of the health effects of climate change, the implementation of the Paris Agreement,1 and the health implications of these actions. It follows on from the work of the 2015 Lancet Commission on Health and Climate Change,2 which concluded that anthropogenic climate change threatens to undermine the past 50 years of gains in public health, and conversely, that a comprehensive response to climate change could be “the greatest global health opportunity of the 21st century”.
 
Landrigan PJ, Fuller R, Acosta NJR, Adeyi O, Arnold R. The Lancet Commission on pollution and health . The Lancet [Internet]. 2017. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Pollution is the largest environmental cause of disease and premature death in the world today. Diseases caused by pollution were responsible for an estimated 9 million premature deaths in 2015—16% of all deaths worldwide—three times more deaths than from AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria combined and 15 times more than from all wars and other forms of violence. In the most severely affected countries, pollution-related disease is responsible for more than one death in four.
 
Griscom BW, Adams J, Ellis PW, Houghton RA, Lomax G, Miteva DA, Schlesinger WH, Shoch D, Siikamäki JV, Smith P, et al. Natural climate solutions . Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [Internet]. 2017. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Better stewardship of land is needed to achieve the Paris Climate Agreement goal of holding warming to below 2 °C; however, confusion persists about the specific set of land stewardship options available and their mitigation potential. To address this, we identify and quantify “natural climate solutions” (NCS): 20 conservation, restoration, and improved land management actions that increase carbon storage and/or avoid greenhouse gas emissions across global forests, wetlands, grasslands, and agricultural lands. We find that the maximum potential of NCS—when constrained by food security, fiber security, and biodiversity conservation—is 23.8 petagrams of CO2 equivalent (PgCO2e) y−1 (95% CI 20.3–37.4). This is ≥30% higher than prior estimates, which did not include the full range of options and safeguards considered here. About half of this maximum (11.3 PgCO2e y−1) represents cost-effective climate mitigation, assuming the social cost of CO2 pollution is ≥100 USD MgCO2e−1 by 2030. Natural climate solutions can provide 37% of cost-effective CO2 mitigation needed through 2030 for a >66% chance of holding warming to below 2 °C. One-third of this cost-effective NCS mitigation can be delivered at or below 10 USD MgCO2−1. Most NCS actions—if effectively implemented—also offer water filtration, flood buffering, soil health, biodiversity habitat, and enhanced climate resilience. Work remains to better constrain uncertainty of NCS mitigation estimates. Nevertheless, existing knowledge reported here provides a robust basis for immediate global action to improve ecosystem stewardship as a major solution to climate change.

 
Kurth AE. Planetary Health and the Role of Nursing: A Call to Action . Journal of Nursing Scholarship. 2017.Abstract
Purpose
To discuss the drivers of planetary health, responses, and the role of nursing in making health systems more resilient in an era of increasing stresses. As health providers, scientists, educators, and leaders, nurses have an obligation to prepare for climate change and other impacts of ecosystem strain on human health.
 
Design and Methods
Review of literature relevant to a planetary health framework.
 
Findings
Population displacement, new disease patterns and health needs, stresses on air quality, food production and water systems, and equity concerns, as well as the generation of sustainable energy, are all intimately related to health.
 
Conclusions
Nurses are key to achieving the sustainable development goals that, like the planetary health framework, focus on environmental sustainability and human well-being. Nurses contribute to resilient health systems, as trusted leaders and providers of health care, and as advocates and change makers impacting the world.
 
Clinical Relevance
It is critical that nurses and other health professionals consider the multiple effects of ecosystem strain on human health, and anticipate population health and health system planning and response.
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