Non-communicable Disease

Particulate Air Pollution ProtectionWarmer temperatures associated with climate change increase the formation of tropospheric ozone, a main constituent of smog and contributor to cardiorespiratory disease, and are associated with longer pollen seasons and increased pollen production, intensifying allergic respiratory diseases such as asthma. Particulate air pollution is driving increases in cardiovascular diseases and associated mortality. We are also currently experiencing a global epidemic of over-nutrition characterized by excessive intake of the wrong foods – largely driven by inadequate access to fruits, vegetables, fish, and nuts and seeds – resulting in unprecedented rates of obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. 

Learning Objectives

  • L1: Explain global trends in the burden of non-communicable diseases.
  • L2: Understand the impact of environmental exposures in air and water on non-communicable diseases.
  • L3: Identify the key stakeholders and partners with whom to prioritize public health and ecosystem problems in the context of non-communicable diseases.


Efferth T, Paul NW. Threats to human health by great ocean garbage patches . The Lancet Planetary Health [Internet]. 2017;1 (8). Publisher's VersionAbstract
The medical relevance of environmental topics can be blurred by politicised debates and the global scale of the environmental impact of human life. However, a seemingly remote serious health threat is currently floating in our oceans and needs to trigger the attention of the medical community, as its clinical manifestation is only a matter of time.
Myers SS. Planetary health: protecting human health on a rapidly changing planet . The Lancet [Internet]. 2017. Publisher's VersionAbstract

The impact of human activities on our planet's natural systems has been intensifying rapidly in the past several decades, leading to disruption and transformation of most natural systems. These disruptions in the atmosphere, oceans, and across the terrestrial land surface are not only driving species to extinction, they pose serious threats to human health and wellbeing. Characterising and addressing these threats requires a paradigm shift. In a lecture delivered to the Academy of Medical Sciences on Nov 13, 2017, I describe the scale of human impacts on natural systems and the extensive associated health effects across nearly every dimension of human health. I highlight several overarching themes that emerge from planetary health and suggest advances in the way we train, reward, promote, and fund the generation of health scientists who will be tasked with breaking out of their disciplinary silos to address this urgent constellation of health threats. I propose that protecting the health of future generations requires taking better care of Earth's natural systems.

Landrigan PJ, Fuller R, Acosta NJR, Adeyi O, Arnold R. The Lancet Commission on pollution and health . The Lancet [Internet]. 2017. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Pollution is the largest environmental cause of disease and premature death in the world today. Diseases caused by pollution were responsible for an estimated 9 million premature deaths in 2015—16% of all deaths worldwide—three times more deaths than from AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria combined and 15 times more than from all wars and other forms of violence. In the most severely affected countries, pollution-related disease is responsible for more than one death in four.
Rohde RA, Muller RA. Air Pollution in China: Mapping of Concentrations and Sources . PLoS ONE [Internet]. 2015. Publisher's VersionAbstract

China has recently made available hourly air pollution data from over 1500 sites, including airborne particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2, and O3. We apply Kriging interpolation to four months of data to derive pollution maps for eastern China. Consistent with prior findings, the greatest pollution occurs in the east, but significant levels are widespread across northern and central China and are not limited to major cities or geologic basins. Sources of pollution are widespread, but are particularly intense in a northeast corridor that extends from near Shanghai to north of Beijing. During our analysis period, 92% of the population of China experienced >120 hours of unhealthy air (US EPA standard), and 38% experienced average concentrations that were unhealthy. China’s population-weighted average exposure to PM2.5 was 52 μg/m3. The observed air pollution is calculated to contribute to 1.6 million deaths/year in China [0.7–2.2 million deaths/year at 95% confidence], roughly 17% of all deaths in China.

Lane K, Charles-Guzman K, Wheeler K, Abid Z, Graber N, Matte T. Health Effects of Coastal Storms and Flooding in Urban Areas: A Review and Vulnerability Assessment . Journal of Environmental and Public Health [Internet]. 2013. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Coastal storms can take a devastating toll on the public's health. Urban areas like New York City (NYC) may be particularly at risk, given their dense population, reliance on transportation, energy infrastructure that is vulnerable to flood damage, and high-rise residential housing, which may be hard-hit by power and utility outages. Climate change will exacerbate these risks in the coming decades. Sea levels are rising due to global warming, which will intensify storm surge. These projections make preparing for the health impacts of storms even more important. We conducted a broad review of the health impacts of US coastal storms to inform climate adaptation planning efforts, with a focus on outcomes relevant to NYC and urban coastal areas, and incorporated some lessons learned from recent experience with Superstorm Sandy. Based on the literature, indicators of health vulnerability were selected and mapped within NYC neighborhoods. Preparing for the broad range of anticipated effects of coastal storms and floods may help reduce the public health burden from these events.

  • 1 of 23
  • »

Licensing & Fair Use Agreement

All of the content in the collection is licensed for sharing and modification under a Creative Commons license (CC BY 4.0). If you are involved in education on planetary health topics and would like to share teaching materials, please enrich our community! By sharing materials you agree to the terms and conditions outlined in our legal framework. You can share materials here