Jones BA, Grace D, Kock R, Alonso S, Rushton J, Said MY, McKeever D, Mutua F, Young J, McDermott J, et al. Zoonosis emergence linked to agricultural intensification and environmental change. PNAS [Internet]. 2013;110 (21) :8399-8404. Publisher's VersionAbstract

A systematic review was conducted by a multidisciplinary team to analyze qualitatively best available scientific evidence on the effect of agricultural intensification and environmental changes on the risk of zoonoses for which there are epidemiological inter- actions between wildlife and livestock. The study found several examples in which agricultural intensification and/or environ- mental change were associated with an increased risk of zoonotic disease emergence, driven by the impact of an expanding human population and changing human behavior on the environment. We conclude that the rate of future zoonotic disease emergence or reemergence will be closely linked to the evolution of the agricultureenvironment nexus. However, available research inadequately addresses the complexity and interrelatedness of environmental, biological, economic, and social dimensions of zoonotic pathogen emergence, which significantly limits our ability to predict, prevent, and respond to zoonotic disease emergence. 

McNeely JA. A zoological perspective on payments for ecosystem services integrative zoology. [Internet]. 2007;2 :68-78. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Payments for ecosystem services provide a more diverse flow of benefits to people living in and around habitats valuable for conservation e.g. payment for carbon sequestration. Another is compensating upstream landowners for managing their land in ways that maintain downstream water quality. Biodiversity itself is difficult to value but it can be linked to other markets such as certification in the case of sustainably-produced forest products. This paper explores potential markets that also benefit wildlife. This summary is not an official abstract. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract

Lassi ZS, Haider, B A, Bhutta, Z A. Zinc supplementation for the prevention of pneumonia in children aged 2 months to 59 months. Cochrane Database Syst Rev [Internet]. 2010;12. Publisher's VersionAbstract


Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children younger than five years of age. Most deaths occur during infancy and in low-income countries. Daily regimens of zinc have been reported to prevent acute lower respiratory tract infection and reduce child mortality.


To evaluate the effectiveness of zinc supplementation in the prevention of pneumonia in children aged two to 59 months.


We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 2), which contains the Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1966 to January Week 2, 2010), EMBASE (1974 to January 2010) and LILACS (1985 to January 2010).


Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating supplementation of zinc for the prevention of pneumonia in children aged 2 to 59 months of age.


Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data.


We included six trials and 7850 participants in the meta-analysis. Analysis showed that zinc supplementation reduced the incidence of pneumonia by 13% (risk ratio (RR) 0.87; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81 to 0.94, fixed-effect, six studies) and prevalence of pneumonia by 41% (RR 0.59; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.99, random-effects, one study). On subgroup analysis, we found that zinc reduced the incidence of pneumonia defined by specific clinical criteria by 21% (i.e. confirmation by chest examination or chest radiograph) (RR 0.79; 95% CI 0.0.71 to 0.88, fixed-effect, four studies, n = 4591) but had no effect on lower specificity pneumonia case definition (i.e. age specific fast breathing with or without lower chest indrawing) (RR 0.95; 95% CI 0.86 to 1.06, fixed-effect, four studies, n = 3259).


Zinc supplementation in children is associated with a reduction in the incidence and prevalence of pneumonia, the leading cause of death in children.

Black RE. Zinc Deficiency, Infectious Disease and Mortality in the Developing World. J. Nutr. [Internet]. 2003;133 :1485S-1489. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Zinc deficiency places children in many low-income countries at increased risk of illness and death from infectious diseases. Randomized controlled trials of zinc supplementation provide the best estimate of this risk through demonstrated preventive benefits. In six of nine trials that evaluated prevention of diarrhea, significantly lower incidence of diarrhea occurred in the zinc group than in the controls; a pooled analysis demonstrated 18% (95% confidence interval, 7-28%) less diarrhea. In five trials, a lower rate of pneumonia infection was found in the zinc-supplemented groups, and there was some indication of a preventive effect in three trials with a clinical malaria outcome. Zinc was also found to have a therapeutic benefit in seven trials of acute diarrhea and five of persistent diarrhea. Studies to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on mortality are under way, but a recently published study from India identified a 68% reduction in mortality in small-for-gestational-age term infants that were supplemented with zinc from 1 to 9 mo of age. The important effects of zinc deficiency are now clear, and nutrition programs should address this prevalent problem.

Caulfield LE, Black RE. Zinc Deficiency. In: Ezzati M, Lopez AD, Rodgers A, Murray, Christopher JL Comparative quantification of health risks: global and regional burden of disease attribution to selected major risk factors. Vol. 1. Geneva: World Health Organization ; 2004. Publisher's Version
Lonnerdal B. Zinc and Health: Current Status and Future Directions. The Journal of Nutrition [Internet]. 2000 :1378-1383. Publisher's VersionAbstract

 The objective of this paper is to provide a current overview of the significance of zinc in human nutrition. To achieve this, the following issues are addressed: (1) the biochemistry and biology of zinc in the context of their relevance to zinc in human nutrition and to our understanding of the complexity and practical importance of human zinc deficiency; (2) the history of our understanding of human zinc deficiency with an emphasis both on its brevity and on notable recent progress; (3) the clinical spectrum of severe zinc deficiency; (4) the lack of ideal biomarkers for milder zinc deficiency states, with the consequent dependence on randomized, placebo-controlled intervention studies to ascertain their prevalence and clinical consequences, including growth delay, diarrhea, pneumonia, other infections, disturbed neuropsychological performance and abnormalities of fetal development; (5) the public health significance of human zinc deficiency in the developing world; (6) reasons for concern and unanswered questions about zinc nutriture in the United States; (7) the need for better understanding of human zinc metabolism and homeostasis (including its limitations) at a molecular, cellular, organ-system and whole body level and of factors that affect zinc bioavailability; and (8) potential strategies for the prevention and management of human zinc deficiency. This review concludes with an emphasis on the immediate need for expanded research in directions that have become increasingly well demarcated and impelling as a result of recent progress, which is summarized in this overview

World Health Organization. Zinc. In: Trace elements in human nutrition and health. Geneva Switzerland: World Health Organization ; 1996. Publisher's Version
Pleijel H, Danielsson H. Yield dilution of grain Zn in wheat grown in open-top chamber experiments with elevated CO2 and O3 exposure. Journal of Cereal Science [Internet]. 2009;50 :278-282. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain Zn data from six open-top chamber experiments performed in south-west Sweden were combined to study the relationship between Zn accumulation and grain yield, grain protein, and yield components. Treatments included, in addition to open-top chamber controls, elevated CO2, elevated O3, combined CO2 and O3 exposure, combined elevated CO2 and supplemental irrigation, supplemental irrigation, and ambient air comparison plots. The grain Zn concentration was strongly correlated with grain protein (R2 = 0.90) over the range of the experimental treatments, representing non-soil factors. A significant yield dilution effect was found for Zn. For a 10% increase in grain yield, Zn yield was increased by 6.8% on average. Effects on Zn yield correlated strongly with effects on grain protein yield, with a slope close to unity, showing that yield dilution effects for grain Zn and grain protein were similar. Treatment effects on grain Zn concentration were related to effects on grain weight (P < 0.01) and grain number (P < 0.05), but not to harvest index. It was concluded that yield stimulation caused by rising CO2 concentrations is likely to lead to reduced Zn concentrations of wheat grain, thus reducing the nutritional quality.

Neira M, Bertollini R, Campbell-Lendrum D, Heymann DL. The Year 2008: A Breakthrough Year for Health Protection from Climate Change?. American Journal of Preventive Medicine [Internet]. 2008;35 :424-425. Publisher's Version
White MP, Alcock I, Wheeler BW, Depledge MH. Would you be happier living in a greener urban area? A fixed-effects analysis of panel data. Psychological Science [Internet]. 2013. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Urbanization is a potential threat to mental health and well-being. Cross-sectional evidence suggests that living closer to urban green spaces, such as parks, is associated with lower mental distress. However, earlier research was unable to control for time-invariant heterogeneity (e.g., personality) and focused on indicators of poor psychological health. The current research advances the field by using panel data from over 10,000 individuals to explore the relation between urban green space and well-being (indexed by ratings of life satisfaction) and between urban green space and mental distress (indexed by General Health Questionnaire scores) for the same people over time. Controlling for individual and regional covariates, we found that, on average, individuals have both lower mental distress and higher well-being when living in urban areas with more green space. Although effects at the individual level were small, the potential cumulative benefit at the community level highlights the importance of policies to protect and promote urban green spaces for well-being. 

Pattanayak SK, Kramer R. Worth of watersheds: A producer surplus approach for valuing drought control in Eastern Indonesia. Environment and Development Economics [Internet]. 2001;6 :123-45. Publisher's VersionAbstract

This study combines hydrological modeling with applied micro-econometric techniques to value a complex ecosystem service: drought mitigation provided by tropical forested watersheds to agrarian communities. Spatial variation in current base flow allows estimation of drought mitigation values as the marginal profit accruing to agricultural households. The paper shows that focusing on producer (not consumer) surplus measures is appropriate for valuation as long as markets for commodities related to the environmental services are complete. For the typical household, the estimated marginal profit is positive -validating the central hypothesis that base flow makes positive contributions to agricultural profits. The paper provides support for the hypothesis that protected watersheds can supply latent and unrecognized ecosystem services to local people. This summary is not an official abstract. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract

Mitchell EAD, Mulhauser B, Mulot M, Mutabazi A, Glauser G, Aebi A. A worldwide survey of neonicotinoids in honey . Science [Internet]. 2017;358 (6359) :109-111. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Growing evidence for global pollinator decline is causing concern for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services maintenance. Neonicotinoid pesticides have been identified or suspected as a key factor responsible for this decline. We assessed the global exposure of pollinators to neonicotinoids by analyzing 198 honey samples from across the world. We found at least one of five tested compounds (acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) in 75% of all samples, 45% of samples contained two or more of these compounds, and 10% contained four or five. Our results confirm the exposure of bees to neonicotinoids in their food throughout the world. The coexistence of neonicotinoids and other pesticides may increase harm to pollinators. However, the concentrations detected are below the maximum residue level authorized for human consumption (average ± standard error for positive samples: 1.8 ± 0.56 nanograms per gram).
the World Resources Institute, the United Nations Environment Programme UNDP, Bank TW. World resources 1998-99: Environmental change and human health.; 1998. Publisher's VersionAbstract

This publication explores the links between environmental quality and human health, describing how environmental conditions contribute to the current burden of death and disease around the world. It considers trends that are changing the physical environment with the potential to influence human health (e.g. intensification of agriculture, industrialization and rising energy use). This summary is not an official abstract. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract

United Nations, Department of Economic and Sociial Affairs PD ed. World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision.; 2013 pp. ST/ESA/SER.A/336. Publisher's Version
World Population Highlights. Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau; 2007 pp. 16. Publisher's Version
World Population Data Sheet. Washington, DC: (PRB) Popul Ref. Bur.; 2005. Publisher's Version
Alexandratos N. World food and agriculture: outlook for the medium and longer term. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA [Internet]. 1999;96 :5908-14. Publisher's VersionAbstract

The world has been making progress in improving food security, as measured by the per person availability of food for direct human consumption. However, progress has been very uneven, and many developing countries have failed to participate in such progress. In some countries, the food security situation is today worse than 20 years ago. The persistence of food insecurity does not reflect so much a lack of capacity of the world as a whole to increase food production to whatever level would be required for everyone to have consumption levels assuring satisfactory nutrition. The world already produces sufficient food. The undernourished and the food-insecure persons are in these conditions because they are poor in terms of income with which to purchase food or in terms of access to agricultural resources, education, technology, infrastructure, credit, etc., to produce their own food. Economic development failures account for the persistence of poverty and food insecurity. In the majority of countries with severe food-security problems, the greatest part of the poor and food-insecure population depend greatly on local agriculture for a living. In such cases, development failures are often tantamount to failures of agricultural development. Development of agriculture is seen as the first crucial step toward broader development, reduction of poverty and food insecurity, and eventually freedom from excessive economic dependence on poor agricultural resources. Projections indicate that progress would continue, but at a pace and pattern that would be insufficient for the incidence of undernutrition to be reduced significantly in the medium-term future. As in the past, world agricultural production is likely to keep up with, and perhaps tend to exceed, the growth of the effective demand for food. The problem will continue to be one of persistence of poverty, leading to growth of the effective demand for food on the part of the poor that would fall short of that required for them to attain levels of consumption compatible with freedom from undernutrition.

Maddison A. The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective. Paris: OECD. [Internet]. 2001;385. Publisher's Version
Bruinsma J. World Agriculture: Towards 2015/2030, an FAO Perspective. London: FAO; 2003. Publisher's Version
Ray I. Women, water, and development. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. [Internet]. 2007;32 :421-49. Publisher's VersionAbstract

That women play a central role in the provision, management, and safeguarding of water is one of the four internationally accepted principles of water management. This principle is especially important for the developing world where millions of women lack access to water for their basic needs. The objectives of this chapter are to summarize what is known about women with respect to water and about water with respect to women as well as to provide a sense of the current debates around these themes. A review of the literature suggests that the lack of gender-disaggregated data on the impacts of water policies, and underlying disagreements on how gender and development should be theorized, makes it difficult to reach robust conclusions on which policies can best assure poor women reliable access to water for their lives and livelihoods.